bluejack oak
Quercus incana

Secondary Names:
sandjack oak

Leaf Type: Deciduous
Texas Native:
Tree Description:

A small to medium-sized woodland tree usually no more than 25 feet in height and 6" in diameter, with an irregular, open crown of gray-green foliage. Tree is most attractive in early spring when it is covered with the light red flowers and young leaves

Range/Site Description:

Found on dry sand hills in East Texas, extending as far west as the Brazos River, and scattered across Central Texas.


Simple, alternate, oblong-lanceolate, 3" to 5" in length and 1" to 1.5" wide, with a single bristle at leaf tip; gray-green above, light gray-pubescent beneath, with a stout yellow midrib.


Separate male and female flowers on the same tree. Male flowers borne on a catkin about 3" long; inconspicuous female flowers borne on a short, pubescent stalk.


An acorn, requiring two years to mature and produced in great profusion, 0.5" long, sessile or on a short stalk, rounded at the ends, and often striped.


Similar to blackjack oak, being black or dark gray and divided into thick, squarish blocks 1" across with irregular fissures between.


Wood is hard, strong, close-grained, light brown tinged with red, with a dark colored sapwood. The wood is used for fuelwood and posts.

Similar Species:

Willow oak (Quercus phellos) occurs on moist sites and has narrow leaves less than 1" wide; blackjack oak (Q. marilandica) occurs on similar sites but has large obovate leaves 10" long.

Interesting Facts:

Often associated with longleaf pine stands in East Texas, where it occurs with black hickory, flowering dogwood, post oak, and farkleberry.

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