A very common, large tree to 90 feet tall and a trunk 2 feet or more in diameter, though usually smaller in stature, with a round or oval crown of light green foliage.
Distributed widely over the eastern two-thirds of the state, sugraberry occurs most abundantly and attains greatest size in rich alluvial soils along riverbottoms, but thrives on many other well-drained soil types.
Alternate, simple, 2.5" to 5" long and 1" to 2" wide, ovate or lanceolate, base lopsided, margin smooth or with a few remote teeth near the base, and long-pointed; leaf texture thin, smooth, with 3 prominent veins at the base beneath; leaf color light green turning yellow in fall.
Borne on slender stalks in the leaf axils in April or May, inconspicuous, greenish-white in color.
Ripening in September as an orange-red, round or oblong drupe, about 0.25" in diameter, on a stalk up to 0.5" long, turning dark purple to black later in the fall.
Gray or gray-brown, smooth and thin at first, developing the distinctive warty bumps and ridges on larger trunks and branches.
Soft, weak, close-grained, and light yellow, used occasionally for flooring and furniture, but chiefly for fuelwood.
Netleaf hackberry (Celtis laevigata var. reticulata) has leaves 2" long or less, with raised veins underneath that form a net-like appearance, occurring in West Texas; Lindheimer's hackberry (C. lindheimeri) has grayish-green leaves and only occurs in Central Texas.
This species occurs in all ecoregions except Mountain Forests.